We use it

This tense is used to refer to an action which had happened (started and ended) before another situation in the past.


Sentences in this tense can be accompanied by words such as...

- Never

- Just

- Already

- Since

- Yet

- For

- As soon as

- Until


Auxiliary "Had".

Subject + Had + Past Participle of The Verb + the rest of the sentence.

To formulate affirmative sentences in this tense, we use the auxiliary "Had", regardless of the subject of the sentence.

The main verb is conjugated in Past Participle but its form will depend on the regular or irregular form of the verb.

If the verb is Regular, we add -Ed at the end of it.

If the verb is Irregular, it will appear in the irregular verb list, the Past Participle appears in the 3rd column.


I wrote an essay about the book that I had read before.

Susan had worked the whole day before she went back home.

He had finished school when he met Kate.

She had never been to India.

Subject + Had Not + Verb Conjugated In The Past Participle + the rest of the sentence.

In the negative sentences, add "Not" to the auxiliary verb

Had Not (Hadn't).

The Verb is always conjugated in the Past Participle.


She hadn't ridden a horse for a long time so she was scared.

I hadn't been to England until 2002.

Bobby had not cleaned his room when mum arrived.

Had + Subject + Verb Conjugated In Past Participle + the rest of the sentence?

The interrogative form is formulated writing the auxiliary "Had" before the Subject.

The verb of the sentence is always written in Past Participle.


Had they found Emily when her dad appeared?

Had she phoned the police before the thieves left?

Had you studied for that exam you failed?